Agricultural machinery: Seeder

Agricultural machinery: Seeder

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Classification - Operation carried out

Tools not applied to the power take-off

The seeder is an agricultural tool that allows the planting of the seed of the crop we intend to cultivate; up to 60-70 years ago, but even less, in some medium-small cereal-oriented farms the sowing, for example of wheat, was done entirely by hand, the most recurring scene was that of the farmer who on the setting of the sun threw with skillful craftsmanship and perfect geometry the small grains of wheat from the bundle tied over the shoulder to the ground, knowing that the following year, where there was nothing there now, there would be a large golden extension that would feed the whole family. After this brief parenthesis of how the sowing work was carried out, once we go back to talking about the tool in question; the seeder performs several tasks at the same time, in fact, the first task it has is to open a furrow in the ground by means of a small furrower, then the seed is deposited inside the furrow and to finish two small metal organs close the furrow previously open, some seed drills are then equipped with a compaction roller which favors the adhesion of the caryopsis to the soil, facilitating its germination.


Today, there are basically two types of seeders on the market, the universal ones with rows, which are used for sowing wheat, barley, medicine and thousands of other types of seeds, and the precision seed drill which is much more complex than the previous one and is usually used for those seeds that are marketed in "doses" such as corn. It will therefore appear that the universal seeder will have a simpler structure and therefore a relatively low cost, while precision precision will have a very high cost, which is why the sowing of corn for example is done by contractors who also have a seeder in their machinery precision.
The seeders were once towed, equipped with large wheels and a single central hopper, today modern seeders are often carried by a hydraulic lift, also equipped with wheels but much smaller and more hoppers, often in addition to the seed hopper it also finds a hopper for fertilizer which is located on the row thus avoiding a passage with the tractor to distribute only the fertilizer. The precision seed drill is pneumatic, the seed is sent from the hopper to the distributor, which is nothing more than a shaped metal disk, the seed is "sucked" on one side so as to remain attached to the distributor until detachment and subsequent planting of the caryopsis.

Modern universal row seeder - Modern pneumatic precision seeder

Ancient row seeder - Single row seeder for walking

Universal row seeder with relative parts that compose it

Operating diagram of a pneumatic distribution row seeder:
1 - hopper; 2 - dispenser; 3 - fan; 4 - distribution head; 5 - adductor tubes.



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