Typical Italian products: Brovada DOP

Typical Italian products: Brovada DOP

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Production area and history

EC recognition: 2011

The production and conditioning area of ​​the Brovada PDO is included within the census and administrative territory of the municipalities included in the provinces of Gorizia, Pordenone and Udine.
La Brovada is mentioned in Ippolito Nievo's "Confessions of an Italian" (1867) and in Guido Piovene's "Journey to Italy" (1957).


The PDO "Brovada" refers to the product obtained from the transformation of the white-collar turnip, «rapa da brovada», through a process of maceration and fermentation in marc.
Its preparation is exclusive to the demarcated area included in the territory of the Autonomous Region of Friuli Venezia Giulia.
The "Brovada" flavored is crunchy and elastic, never hard, with an acidic flavor and a pungent and characteristic aroma of marc. The color is creamy white, tending to pink or rosé or red depending on the characteristics of the marc used.

Brovada DOP

Production specification - Brovada DOP

Article 1
The protected designation of origin "Brovada" is reserved for the product, obtained through the tearing, fermentation and taping of the local ecotype of white turnip from the collettoviola (Brassica rapa L. var. Rapa Hart) "turnip da brovada" which respects the conditions and the characteristics established in this specification.

Article 2
Product description
The PDO "Brovada" identifies a product obtained from the transformation of the local "rapada brovada" ecotype which must have the following characteristics when it matures in the field:
cylindrical root or conical trunk that facilitates the work of taping;
minimum length 12 cm;
firm and juicy pulp of white color;
epidermis with a red-purple color starting from the collar and up to 2/3 of the total length, the remaining white part;
root buried at least 1/3 of its total length.
The product is released for consumption grated in strips with the following characteristics:
crisp and elastic consistency, never hard;
creamy white color, tending to pink or pink or red in a color scale linked to the characteristics of the marc used;
webbing size between 3 and 7 mm;
pH between 3.4 and 3.8;
volatile acidity not higher than 5.5 mg / g expressed as acetic acid;
acid taste without hints of fresh vegetables;
pungent aroma of marc.

Article 3
Production area
The production and conditioning area of ​​the "Brovada" PDO is included within the provinces of Gorizia, Pordenone and Udine, in the census and administrative territory of the following municipalities, limited to the territories present below 1,200 meters above sea level:
Province of Gorizia:
Capriva del Friuli, Cormons, Dolegna del Collio, Doberdò del Lago, Farra d'Isonzo, FoglianoRedipuglia, Gorizia, Gradisca d'Isonzo, Grado, Mariano del Friuli, Medea, Monfalcone, Moraro, Mossa, Romans d'Isonzo, Ronchi dei Legionari , Sagrado, San Canzian d'Isonzo, San Floriano delCollio, San Lorenzo Isontino, San Pier d'Isonzo, Savogna d'Isonzo, Staranzano, Turriaco, Villesse. Province of Pordenone:
Andreis, Arba, Arzene, Aviano, Azzano Decimo, Barcis, Brugnera, Budoia, Caneva, Castelnovo delFriuli, Casarsa della Delizia, Cavasso Nuovo, Chions, Cimolais, Claut, Clauzetto, Cordenons, Cordovado, Erto and Casso, Fanna, Fiume Veneto, Fontanafredda, Frisanco, Maniago, Meduno, Montereale Valcellina, Morsano al Tagliamento, Pasiano, Pinzano al Tagliamento, Polcenigo, Porcia, Pordenone, Prata di Pordenone, Pravisdomini, Roveredo in Piano, Sacile, San Giorgio dellaRichinvelda, San Martino al Tagliamento, San Quirino , San Vito al Tagliamento, Sequals, Sesto alReghena, Spilimbergo, Tramonti di Sopra, Tramonti di Sotto, Travesio, Vajont, Valvasone, Vitod'Asio, Vivaro, Zoppola.
Province of Udine:
Aiello del Friuli, Amaro, Ampezzo, Aquileia, Arta Terme, Artegna, Attimis, Bagnaria Arsa, Basiliano, Bertiolo, Bicinicco, Bordano, Buja, Buttrio, Camino al Tagliamento, Campoformido, Campolongo al Torre, Carlino, Cassacco, Castions di Strada, Cavazzo Carnico, Cercivento, Cervignano del Friuli, Chiopris-Viscone, Chiusaforte, Cividale del Friuli, Codroipo, Colloredo diMonte Albano, Comeglians, Corno di Rosazzo, Coseano, Dignano, Dogna, Drenchia, Enemonzo, Faedis, Fagagna, Fiumicello, Flaibano, Forgaria in Friuli, Forni Avoltri, Forni di Sopra, Forni diSotto, Gemona del Friuli, Gonars, Grimacco, Latisana, Lauco, Lestizza, Lignano Sabbiadoro, Ligosullo, Lusevera, Magnano in Riviera, Majano, Malborghetto-Valbruna, Manzano, MaranoLagunare, Martignacco, Mereto di Tomba, Moggio Udinese, Moimacco, Montenars, Mortegliano, Moruzzo, Muzzana del Turgnano, Nimis, Osoppo, Ovaro, Pagnacco, Palazzolo dello Stella, Palmanova, Paluzza, Pasian di Prato, Paularo, Pavia di Udine, Pocenia, Pontebba, Porpetto , Povol etto, Pozzuolo del Friuli, Pradamano, Prato Carnico, Precenicco, Premariacco, Preone, Prepotto, Pulfero, Ragogna, Ravascletto, Raveo, Reana del Rojale, Remanzacco, Resia, Resiutta, Rigolato, Rive d'Arcano, Rivignano, Ronchis, Ruda, San Daniele del Friuli, San Giorgio di Nogaro, San Giovanni al Natisone, San Leonardo, San Pietro al Natisone, San Vito al Torre, San Vito diFagagna, Santa Maria la Longa, Savogna, Sedegliano, Socchieve, Stregna, Sutrio, Taipana, Talmassons , Tapogliano, Tarcento, Tarvisio, Tavagnacco, Teor, Terzo d'Aquileia, Tolmezzo, Torreano, Torviscosa, Trasaghis, Treppo Carnico, Treppo Grande, Tricesimo, Trivignano Udinese, Udine, Varmo, Venzone, Verzegnis, Villa Santina, Villa Vicentina, Visco , Zuglio.

Article 4
Proof of origin
Each phase of the production process must be monitored by documenting the inputs and outputs for each. In this way, and through the registration in special lists, managed by the control structure, of the cadastral parcels on which the cultivation takes place, of the producers and de-conditioners, as well as through the timely reporting to the control structure of the quantities produced, the traceability of the product is guaranteed. . All persons, natural or legal, registered in the respective lists, will be subject to control by the control structure, according to the provisions of the production specification and the related control plan.

Article 5
Obtaining method
Turnip cultivation
The local ecotype of white-collar purple turnip (Brassica rapa L. rapa Hart), "rapa dabrovada" is registered in the regional register for the "protection of indigenous genetic resources of agricultural and forestry interest" of the Autonomous Region of Friuli Venezia Giulia in the vegetable section . The seed production, carried out through phenotypic selection (i.e. obtaining the seed from the best plants), takes place at the companies falling within the production area.
Reproduction, selection and cultivation of seeds obtained exclusively by self-production or procurement by a recognized subject and included in the control system referred to in the following art. 7.
Soil preparation
Crop precession: the turnip is grown in succession to the autumn winter cereals (barley and wheat) or alfalfa or on free ground from the previous agricultural year. The cultivation of turnip cannot happen to itself or to other species of the Cruciferae family.
The sowing takes place in a scalar way only from June 15 to August 30, using row seeders from vegetables; sowing can also be done manually by spreading the seed.
Sowing must have a maximum density of 180,000 plants per hectare.
The following chemical fertilization ceilings per hectare of culture must always be respected in the case of nitrogen from 0 to 60 units / year, for phosphorus from 0 to 90 units / year for potassium from 0 to 120 units / year.
Turnips collection
The turnips must be harvested from 1st September and when the basal leaves of the turnip turn yellow and wither and must end by 31st December. The maximum production of the rapa da brovada ecotype must not exceed 45 tons per hectare.
After harvest, turnips can:
- be immediately disconnected in the field either manually using a knife or through the use of mechanical means for the collection of tubers in the field;
- do not be scollettate. In this case, the leaves must be reduced and shortened to a "tuft" without affecting the pulp.
Conservation of turnips
Low-cut turnips must be:
- started within 24 hours from their collection to the subsequent washing phases and placing neitini / containers for the maceration - fermentation phase;
- stored without being washed for a maximum period from the day of collection:
10 days if this occurs during the month of September;
20 days if this occurs during the period from 1 October to 31 December (the last conservation date of the low-cut turnips 20 January).
Unboiled turnips can be kept for a maximum period of 40 days from harvest.
The turnips that are preserved must be stored in rooms that ensure a temperature between 0 and 25 ° C and good natural and / or forced ventilation.
Turnips must be stored in wooden and / or plastic boxes or in net bags for eradic tubers. Only the unglazed turnips can be stored in bulk with a cumulomai height greater than 80 cm.
The conservation of low-cut and non-low-cut turnips in a cold room at temperatures between 0 and 4 ° C and relative humidity between 80 and 95% is allowed, for a maximum period of 4 months from the day of collection.
Turnips washing
Turnips are washed both manually and with mechanical equipment; they must always be placed in the vats / containers within 72 hours following their washing.
Turnips not used immediately after washing must be left to dry in local pipelines at a temperature between 0 and 25 ° C, always respecting the times indicated above.
Technique and method for obtaining the brovada
Raw materials for the formation of the fermenting mass:
Turnip da brovada, local ecotype of white turnip with a purple collar (Brassica rapa L. rapa Hart), referred to in art. 2;
Pomace with the following characteristics:
- coming exclusively from the vinification of grapes belonging to the red grape varieties of the area delimited by art. 3;
- free of obvious mold and rot;
- dry and easy to chop;
Optional ingredients:
Pressed grapes: from red berried vines grown in the area delimited by art. 3 mix only with the marc.
Red wine: obtained from red grape varieties cultivated and vinified in the area delimited by art. 3.
Red wine vinegar
Coarse sea salt
The use of preservatives and dyes is not allowed.
Pomace conservation
If not used within 30 days from the moment of its pressing, the marc ingredient must be kept for a maximum period of 13 months and, in this case, must never have been used.
Storage must take place in rooms that guarantee temperatures between 0 and 30 ° C.
The two methods of storing the marc allowed are:
- keeping away from light in plastic food containers and / or fiberglass and / or steel, for this purpose the product must be pressed and the container sealed to avoid any contact with air.
- mixing with wine obtained from red berried vines cultivated and vinified in the production area in a maximum proportion of 50% by volume, in plastic food containers and / or fiberglass and / or steel which are left open.
Preparation and reuse of acidified marc
The "acetification" of the marc is allowed before it is used for lamination. This process consists in the maceration of the marc alone or added to the additional ingredients in the following proportions:
- per 100 kg of marc, water from 0 to 15 liters;
- per 100 kg of marc, wine, obtained from red berried vines grown and vinified in the production area referred to in art. 3, from 10 to 20 liters;
- per 100 kg of marc, crushed red berried grapes, obtained from vines grown in the production area referred to in art. 3, from 30 to 50 kg;
- for 100 kg of marc, wine, obtained from red berried vines grown and vinified in the production area referred to in art. 3, from 10 to 20 liters and crushed red berried grapes, obtained from vines cultivated in the production area referred to in art. 3, from 30 to 50 kg in varying proportions.
Maceration must take place in aerobic conditions for a period between two and thirty days; the absence of the smell of mold must always be guaranteed.
The reuse of acidified marc used during a fermentation process for the preparation of new vats during the same production year is allowed.
If reused, the surface layer called the "hat" must always be completely eliminated.
Preparation of the fermenting mass
The containers in which the entire fermentation process is carried out must be made of wood, fiberglass, stainless steel or plastic for food.
The turnips are then arranged alternately in the vats / containers layered with the marc. In the creation of the layers, a quantity of marc equal to a minimum of 25% of the weight of the turnips and a maximum of 100% of the weight of the turnips must always be used.
The last layer must always be made of marc that ensures complete immersion of the most superficial layer of turnips to avoid oxidation and degenerative processes.
It is allowed to distribute the coarse sea salt on each layer of marc or to complete the alternate stratification. The quantity of salt which may be sprinkled must not exceed 0.5% of the quantity by weight of turnips introduced into the vat / container.
After the preparation of the fermenting mass, each vat is covered with untreated wooden boards.
Characteristics of the fermentation liquid
To complete the stratification, only water or water is added with the addition of the following ingredients:
- red wine vinegar between 0 and 10% of the total liquid used,
- wine, obtained from red berried vines grown and vinified in the production area referred to in art. 3, between 0 and 10% of the total liquid used,
- red wine vinegar and wine, in different proportions, for a total quantity between 0 and 10%.
The water or aqueous solution must be poured until the container is completely filled. The filling process must be completed within the next day.
They are admitted in the first four days from the start of the maceration / fermentation process topping up with water or with the same aqueous solution previously used.
Once the turnips are extracted, the reuse of the fermentation liquid is allowed for the preparation of new vats. The liquid must have the characteristic acid smell and must not be oily.
Characteristics and duration of the fermentation process
The rooms where the vats / containers are placed for fermentation must have an ambient temperature between 8 and 25 ° C.
The temperature of the fermenting mass starting from the fourth day from the covering of the dolphin / container, must be monitored in order to ensure a temperature between 10 and 22 ° C.
The duration of the process must never be shorter:
- 25 days for the product launched for production during the month of September;
- 30 days for the product launched for production during the months of October to March.
The conformity of the fermentative process of the mass is to be considered concluded when the half-hatched has:
- the internal part with the characteristic creamy white color, tending to pink or rosé or red in a color scale linked to the characteristics of the marc used exclusively from the vinification of grapes in the production area referred to in art. 3 belonging to red grape vines;
- a pomace aroma;
- it must not have the smell or taste of fresh turnip;
- elasticity, or a prompt restoration of the surface subjected to manual pressure.
Preparation of the product for release for consumption
After the fermentation phase, once extracted from the vats, the turnips are cleaned of the marc and washed exclusively with water. The product that is not washed immediately must be stored exclusively in the fermentation liquid filtered by the marc, for a maximum of 48 hours.
The turnips are selected and peeled. The product that has the following defects must be eliminated: dents and deep molds, which cannot be eliminated by cutting and cleaning; blackened and fibrous, excessive softness to the touch.
The suitable turnips are taped with the grater with holes of a size not less than 3 mm and not more than 7 mm in order to obtain the so-called "match cut". All these operations can be performed both manually and mechanically.
The taped product, which is not immediately placed in the recipients for release for consumption (in the types provided for in the following art. 8), must be kept in plastic food containers with closures stored in rooms with a temperature between 4 and 10 ° C, for a maximum of 48 hours.
During this phase it is forbidden to add any liquid and / or additive to the product.
In the packs to be released for consumption, liquid deriving from the natural release of the water present in the turnip tissues or artificially formed from a solution composed exclusively of water and vinegar of red wine and / or wine, obtained from red berried vines cultivated evinified in the production area as per art. 3, added in a measure comprised between 2 and 10% of the total liquid used;
The liquid must be present in a proportion between 200 and 250 ml for each kilogram of product.
Preservation of the finished product
Once packed, the product must be stored in closed rooms, in the dark, with a temperature between 4 and 10 ° C for a maximum period of 15 days.
The "Brovada" is an agro-food product closely linked to seasonal consumption, therefore the preparation of the fermenting mass can begin only from September 1st until March 31st.
The release of "Brovada" for consumption is allowed starting from September 26th and must end on May 15th of each year.
It is necessary that the conditioning of the product, before being released for consumption, takes place in the place of production in order to minimize the risks of alteration of the same. In the case of displacement / transport, the liquid naturally released by the turnips after the defective process is subject to degradation phenomena with alteration of the main chemical-organoleptic parameters.

Article 6
Link with the environment
The "Brovada" is a typical, original and exclusive product of the production area defined in the previous article 3, all that concerns it is unique starting from the name that cannot be translated unless explaining how to prepare this product. Some local variants of the word "Brovada" exist in Friuli Venezia Giulia such as: broada, broade, brovade, bruade, sbrovada, sbrovade, all probably originated from the Lombard base breowan, that is to boil. Similar terms derived from this verb are found in dialectal spoken in other parts of Italy but, only in the limited area are they used as a noun to identify this food obtained from turnips.
This linguistic peculiarity confirms that, although the turnip is widespread in a much larger production area, fermentation with the marc, preparation with the grater and its use in numerous popular recipes is now exclusive to this area included in the territory of the Autonomous Region of Friuli. Venezia Giulia.
The ecotype used was selected according to the specific environment of the limited production area and with a view to improving the organoleptic characteristics of the "Brovada". The "turnip daBrovada" has a large root with a singular cylindrical shape, particularly suitable for the process of taping, which was once only manual; the firm and juicy pulp allows the production of a crunchy and elastic "Brovada" with the right balance between spicy flavor and sugary. The physiology of the turnip is naturally in close correlation with the characteristics of the soil, the water availability and the climate in the environment of the production area. The summer temperature, optimal according to the available solar energy and the time of exposure to light, promotes vegetative activity and allows a high processing of free amino acids and carbohydrates. The autumn temperature, the period in which the ripening of the turnip ends, characterized by a good temperature range and that is by the alternation between hot days, chefs work the metabolic activity of synthesis of the reserve substances, and the cool nights, which slow down the activity respiratory of the plant, to the advantage of the preservation of the pulp and the increase in the size of the roots which are rich in sugars and of excellent caliber. The soils below 1200 meters above sea level, the limit of cultivation of this vegetable in the delimited production area, dedicated to the cultivation are loose and with little skeleton content with a texture characterized by permeability and excellent drainage that allow a high presence of oxygen. This makes the hemp less sensitive to parasitic attacks ensuring a perfectly healthy development. The specific characteristics of the soil, combined with the mildness of the temperature in the vegetative period, act directly on the growth of the turnip allowing a production of excellent quality level especially in terms of tenderness and absence of fibrousness. The production of "Brovada" requires another fundamental ingredient: pomace, which is also the result of the specific interaction between vitignirossi and the Friuli area.
In many phases of the elaboration process, the knowledge and direct experience of the Friuli producers play a decisive role. Some steps are crucial: the acidification process of the marc, its "evaluation" according to the quantity to be used, the correct execution of the stratification in the vats, the determination of the duration of the fermenting process of the turnips and the identification of its conclusion. There are many factors that interact with the correct evolution of the two souring processes: pomace by acetic bacteria and turnips uses lactic acid bacteria. Driving a correct fermentation only on the basis of observation and experience is certainly a fact of culture and the fact that it is all and only Friulian culture is confirmed by a rich documentation.
There are numerous historical references that testify to the presence of this product in the area described in art. 3 of this production specification.
In the "Cronaca inedita" by Jacopo Valvasone di Maniago (16th century historian) about the "Incursions of the Turks in Friuli" published in Udine in 1860, Tip. Tombetti - Murero, we find the following passage to testify to the habit in the year 1478 of keeping turnips in this territory in this territory:
"(...) Among the many cruelties I will tell you about this one success in the said last incursion (the fact happened in the village of Palse near Pordenone), (...) a poor peasant woman (...) hid behind a tinazzo that was full of turnips preserved in grape stalks, as it is still customary to do in these countries of ours (...) ”.
We find a description of how to make and preserve turnips in a text by prof. Filippo Renegli "Annals of Agriculture of the Kingdom of Italy" Tome Quinto - January, February and March 1810. The procedure, reported almost two hundred years ago, by the illustrious agrarian scholar, is for salient aspects that still followed today to produce the "Brovada".
It confirms the peculiarity of Friuli:
- E. Sartorelli, "A look at Friulian gastronomy" in "Sot la nape", quarterly bulletin of the Philological Society of Friuli No. 1 Udine, 1960 January-March. Speaking of "Brovada", the self-report which is: "... a Friulian dish of ancient origin ... is obtained by fermenting turnips in pomace for a couple of months, cooking them as needed ... after grating them finely".
- M. Del Torre, C. del Cer, B. Natti and G. Zuliani, "Gastronomic itineraries", Encyclopediamonographic of Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine 1974 - volume n ° 2, second part, pag. 1304. Gliautori speak of the "Brovada" in the following terms: "The brovada represents another of the most flat dishes, extended to the whole of Friuli ...".
Not only agricultural or cooking texts, but also works of literature mention the "Brovada":
- Ippolito Nievo (1831 - 1861) in the "Confessions of an Italian, 1867" presents the character of Spaccafumo, while enjoying the "Brovada" by the fire: "Since he was a child he had kept a good neighbor's habit ... so much so that seeing him happen every now and then to eat by the fire the suascodella di brovada had become a habit for everyone "; always in the text of Ippolito Nievod, from the same author's note it is noted that the "Brovada" was: "a soup of grated turnips emitted to boil with ham pesto" and that these grated turnips were also eaten raw as an appetizer ";
- Guido Piovene (1907 - 1974) in "Voyage to Italy - 1957" writes: "The effluvium of the roasts joins the sour one of the brovada, a dish of turnips boiled and soaked with the mood of the blueberry";
- Father Davide Maria Turoldo (1916 - 1992) quotes the "Brovada" in a Friulian proverb: "duc lu san / che buine je uei / ma mior je doman ...", or "everyone knows that the" Brovada "is good today, but better tomorrow ”.
It is interesting to note the turnip also in the coats of arms of the municipality of Ovaro (Udine), which dates back to a decision of the City Council of 3 June 1950, and in the emblem of the Borgo San Rocco di Gorizia, also called Borgo degli Ufiei (turnips).
The "Brovada" has always been a poor dish for the poor and represents an ethnographic and evolutionary testimony of the cuisine of Friuli Venezia Giulia for its external simplicity.

Article 7
The control on the conformity of the product to the specification is carried out by a control structure in accordance with the provisions of articles 10 and 11 of Reg. (CE) n. 510/2006. This structure is the North East Quality Institute (INEQ) with headquarters in Via Rodeano n. 71 - 33038 San Daniele Del Friuli (UD) tel. + 390432-940349, fax + 390432-943357, e-mail [email protected]

Article 8.
The "Brovada" is released for consumption in the following hermetically sealed packs:
- 500 g, 600 g, 700 g, 800 g, 900 g, 1 kg 1.1 kg, 1.2 kg, 1.3 kg, 1.4 kg, 1.5 kg plastic food bags;
- 100 g, 150 g, 200 g, 250 g, 300 g, 350 g, 400 g, 450 g, 500 g, 550 g, 600 g, 650 g, 700 g, 750 g, 800 food trays g, 850 g, 900 g, 950 g, 1 kg, 1.05 kg, 1.1 kg, 1.15 kg, 1.2 kg, 1.25 kg, 1.3 kg, 1.35 kg, 1 , 4 kg, 1.45 kg, 1.5 kg, 3 kg, 4 kg;
- 2.5 kg, 5 kg, 10 kg plastic food buckets;
- 250g, 400g, 500g, 600g, 700g, 800g, 900g, 1kg, 1.1kg, 1.2kg, 1.3kg, 1.4kg, 1 glass jars , 5 kg.
The "Brovada" label must be compulsorily affixed to each individual package.
On the labels affixed to the packaging must appear:
- the logo
The logo basically consists of two main elements, the graphics depicting the turnip stylization and the text "BROVADA".
The drawing of the turnip presents itself with a graphic sign executed manually on cardboard on a rough paper. The result of this method can be clearly seen in the irregularity of the edges that compose it. The part of the foliage is Pantone 355 green in color, while the body which features shading strokes to indicate the cone-like roundness, is purplish red in color, attributable to the Pantone 220 ladder.
The complete drawing of the turnip presents itself at an angle of about 20 degrees with respect to its asseverticale and intersects, with part of its foliage, under the letter "B" of the wording "BROVADA" written completely in capital letters.
The font used for the text "BROVADA" is the Palatino Black, while for the color it refers to the Pantone Blu 072 or Blu 3005.
Under the logo set, consisting of the two elements described above, there is the wording:
"PROTECTED DESIGNATION OF ORIGIN" typed in capital letters with the PalatinoRegular font but expanded in its width to 120%. The size of this text is equal to the length of the "BROVADA". The wording bears the identical reference Pantone Blu 072 or Blu3005 in the colors;
- the community symbol;
- the year of production of the marc;
- the indication of the production batch.
The denomination "Brovada" PDO is untranslatable.
The addition of any qualification not expressly provided for is prohibited.
The use of indications that refer to names or company names or private names is permitted provided they have no laudatory meaning or that are likely to mislead the buyer.

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