We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
Origin, diffusion and economic characteristics
The Indian corrector is probably one of the oldest domestic ducks in the world, the first testimonies date back to more than a thousand years ago: these are some stone sculptures in an ancient temple in Java in Indonesia. The first specimens arrived in Europe in the early nineteenth century, more precisely in Great Britain, although probably the first contacts between this duck and the Europeans were with Dutch seamen.
In the Maritime Museum of Amsterdam, documents proving the use for food by the crew of a Dutch ship of ducks and Corritrice eggs purchased in Indonesia during the sixteenth century can be consulted. The meat and eggs of the ducks were preserved in salt and served to improve the diet of the sailors during the long months of the return home. As with many other breeds, in that period, the first Indian Corridors, who arrived in England, were donated to the London Zoo in 1837, by the XIII Earl of Derby, president of the Zoological Society.
Many scientific authors, in the second half of the nineteenth century, described the Indian corrector, unfortunately creating misunderstandings that lasted for many decades. Nolan, Zollinger, Wallace and Charles Darwin confused the origin, assigning it a origin from the Indian subcontinent and coined the name "Penguin Duck".
Charles Darwin, in his book "The variation of animals and plants in the domestic state", defines it as the most interesting example among domestic ducks and describes it thus: "she walks with her extremely erect body and with her neck thin stretched upwards. "
The name "Penguin Duck" lasts until the first exhibition of an Indian corrector in England, in Dumfries in 1877. During this event the name "Indian Runner" is invented.
Until 1890 there was a strong confusion on the origin and on the denomination of this breed of duck, due to the fact that there was a strong contrast between the Corrector Ducks that continued to be imported from the islands of Indonesia, impeccable in their erect bearing , and the Indian Corritrice lines present in Great Britain, probably crossed with English domestic ducks.
Many British breeders and enthusiasts sought the Indian corrector in India in the late nineteenth century, of course failing. It is probable that the misunderstanding was generated by the fact that the first ship commander who brought the Indian Correctors to Great Britain belonged to the East India Company.
It is the small pamphlet by J. Donald of 1890 "The India Runner Duck: its History and Description" that clarifies the name and origin, which must be traced back to the islands of the Indonesian Archipelago.
The first runners who arrived in England in the nineteenth century presented mainly three different colors: "white" - white, "fawn" - suede and "fawn and white" - white dappled suede. The first standard of the Indian corrector was drawn up in England in 1901 and describes only one color: the "fawn and white" - white dappled suede.
Due to the rapid and widespread diffusion of the Indian corrector in England, two "schools of thought" were immediately formed regarding the selection and standard of the Indian corrector.
On the one hand, a large group of breeders, the "purists", who later founded the Indian Runner Duck Club (IRDC). On the other, a small group of "utilitarian" breeders supported by William Cook (creator of the Orpington breed) who founded the UDC, the Utility Duck Club. The large and fast spread certainly involved a high number of crossbreeds with local breeds, and the clash between the two "schools of thought" probably stemmed from this problem.
The "purists" of the IRDC tried to maintain the purity of the lines of the ducks imported from the Indonesian islands and endeavored to create a network of contacts to obtain new imports, which among other things occurred between 1908 and 1909 with six specimens, and between 1924 and 1926.
On the other hand, there was a small but stubborn group of breeders, who theorized the usefulness of the Indian corrector. Their ultimate goal was to create a useful breed that was perfect in the production of large eggs.
Mathew Smith of IRDC criticized the work of these "utilitarian" breeders very clearly by saying that "in catching the shadow they lost the substance!"
According to the "utilitarians" the specimens too perpendicular and with too narrow backs were to be discarded because they could not have so much space between the bones of the pelvis and for this they could not lay large eggs.
The ideal Indian corrector for "purists" was a duck that resembled the bottle of soda in shape and line. It was Reginald Appleyard, secretary of the UDC, one of the greatest British breeders of the twentieth century, who resolved the matter. Between 1925 and 1926, with a series of articles on The Feathered World, Appleyard described his idea of the Indian corrector. With a series of sketches he outlined the features of his ideal "Indian Runner", from that moment practically without any more discussion his ideal Runner became the animal that we still breed today.
According to Chris and Mike Ashton, authors of numerous books on the Indian corrector, some facts must be accepted: firstly, the lines for the "shows" do not necessarily have to be the best in egg production, if you are looking for simple production of eggs you have to opt for Campbell ducks. Secondly, it must be accepted that the current Indian performance correctors are certainly different from the first Indian Runners imported into England.
If the term "Indiana" is clear by now that it derives from a geographical error, the term "Corritrice" derives from a custom still practiced by Indonesian breeders. Who at the end of summer bring their flocks of Indian Corritrice (sometimes made up of a thousand specimens) from the villages to the market. The distance is covered on foot and the breeder makes the ducks walk all day. Every evening he stops at rice fields or on meadows, so that ducks can graze freely inside a removable fence. At the end of the journey upon arrival at the market, the ducks now grown and fortified by the long journey are sold to the best. Probably this custom, which has persisted for thousands of years, has led to the improvement of the upright characteristic of the duck and has also developed its peculiarity as an excellent pasture, hence the most plausible explanation of the term "corrector".
The extraordinary productivity of these ducks is certainly due to a rigorous selection that took place in the Indonesian islands and probably lasted several centuries. This marked attitude towards deposition is the result of a careful and rigorous selection process that lasted several centuries, perhaps millennia, by Indonesian farmers, breeders and traders.
The historical importance of the Indian corrector, who contributed to the formation of various breeds including the Campbell duck and the Orpington, is remarkable.
Excellent pasture and very rustic, it lays up to 200 eggs (65/70 g) per year. Deposition begins between the 5th and 6th month. The Indian Correction duck usually does not hatch. The reason is simple, when you select a breed for a specific specialty (spawning) for millennia, it is practically automatic to lose many other natural characteristics (e.g. spawning). Egg production is higher in young females, however the eggs of two or three year old females are usually larger than in the eggs of young females.
It currently breeds in all continents of the world Asia, Africa, Oceania, America and of course Europe. Today it is bred all over the world in almost thirty different colors.
Slim, elegant, thin body, practically perpendicular and straight posture, especially if the animal is frightened. Usually he has a frenetic and never relaxed behavior. When not alarmed or moving the body can be tilted between 50 and 80 degrees. The chest must never be prominent and clearly detached from the neck attack. The ideal shape is that of the cone or the soda bottle, the line from the neck down to the belly must be sweet. This defect is very typical in females. There are substantial differences in weight and heights between the Italian and the English standards. In the English standard, the specimens are heavier (about 300 grams more on average) and taller (5 cm at least) and produce a greater number of eggs and larger dimensions. Some specimens of male English corrector Indian corratae measure 80 cm in height.
- Males: up to 2.3 kg
- Females up to 2 kg
- Males: 1.6 - 2.3 kg
- Females: 1.5 - 2.1 kg
curated by Giacomo Cellini
Female Indian corrector duck coloring trout (website photo)
Male Indian Duck corrector (photo website)
Breed standard - FIAV
I - GENERALITIES
Origin: Eastern India. The progenitor breed, as regards the shape, is the Penguin duck of South East India. Selected in the late 19th century in England.
Minimum weight g. 65
Shell color: greenish white.
II - TYPE AND ADDRESSES FOR THE SELECTION
Vigorous duck, with the characteristic elongated bottle shape, with a vertical and elegant bearing. Maintain the typical shape, earliness and good productivity.
III - STANDARD
General appearance and characteristics of the breed
Trunk: Well designed, slender, bottle-shaped.
Head: Long, narrow, wedge-shaped, with a horizontal line from the tip of the beak to the nape of the neck, originating an almost right angle with the neck line.
Beak: Wedge-shaped, strong, straight.
Eyes: Small, positioned very high.
Face: Flat, with little evident cheeks.
Neck: Long, thin, in the shape of a bottle neck, it extends harmoniously into the trunk; the throat forms an almost right angle.
Shoulders: Narrow, rounded.
Back: Elongated, slightly rounded, narrow, very rounded on the sides.
Wings: Medium long, narrow, well fitting, high flow rates.
Tail: Short, closed, which follows the line of the back.
Chest: Little evident, rounded on the sides, without keel.
Legs: Legs evident, fine and medium long; tarsi of medium length, with fine bone, long and well-spaced fingers.
Pigmentation: Very intense.
Skin: Soft and white.
Belly: Well developed.
2 - WEIGHTS
MALE: Kg. 1,6-2,3
FEMALE: Kg. 1,5-2,1
Horizontal habit; big head; weak or bent beak; short, thick neck; massive trunk; light nail with the exception of the white color.
Male: weight less than kg. 1.3
Female: weight less than kg. 1.2
3 - PLUMAGE
Conformation: Very wide, well-fitting, not abundant.
IV - COLORS
MALE AND FEMALE
Pure bright white; white down jacket.
Any trace of color other than white.
WHITE SUEDE SUEDE
upper part of the head and dark brown cheeks; narrow white edging at the base of the beak, white-edged eyes that blend with the white of the neck. The upper two thirds of the neck and the throat are white, the third lower part of the neck and the chest are brown uniformly delimited in a circular way around the neck. White primary and secondary remiges. The belly is white bordered by the chest with a clear and straight line. Brown legs. The coverts of the plumage between the legs and the tail are colar roe deer.
like the male, the upper part of the head, the cheeks, the back and the tail are brown roe deer.
White in brown parts; brown in the white parts; very brown in the remiges: white curls.
MALE AND FEMALE
Basic plumage and pure black down with beetle green reflections, particularly in the male.
White curls; white spots on the throat; very brown coloring at the base of the wings.
MALE AND FEMALE
Uniform bright blue all over the body, without wing mirror. The presence of some isolated black feathers in the plumage is tolerated.
Excessive presence of black.
bright green head and neck; the third lower part is divided, by the dark reddish brown spot on the chest, by a white ring open behind. The wing coverts are dark brown gray, blue wing mirror edged with black and silver white; dark gray remiges, white gray wing interior. Dark brown gray back that turns green black on the rump and in the curls. Dark brown tail, slightly lighter at the base. Lower body and belly, pearl gray with regular black wavy design.
head and neck light brown, with a brown stripe, on both sides of the head, not too light which starts from the beak and passes through the eye reaching
the nape. Covering the wings and brown back, each pen has a well-defined thin black brown stripe. Wing mirror identical to the male. Remiganti, tail and belly of brown color. Brown breast with darker design.
Male: closed neck ring; white curls.
Female: insufficient drawing.
bright green head and neck; white ring open behind. Silver gray wings and back with blue wing mirror. Brown tail with slightly lighter ends, rump and black green curls. Red-brown breast, light pearl gray belly with regular wavy design that becomes lighter towards the lano.
head and neck light brown, with a light brown line, on both sides of the head, which starts from the beak and passes through the eye reaching the nape. Coverers of brown striped wings; blue wing mirror. Ivory back, chest and belly with brown dots: drawing of the trout.
Absence of the trout design; closed neck ring; white curls.
brown gray head and neck, white ring open behind; the third lower part of the neck and the chest are reddish brown (rust). Cream wing mirror bordered in brown gray until it becomes pea-colored. Back with or pea. Croup, curls and tail a little darker. Belly and legs colar light cream.
head with a cream-colored line which, passing through the eye, reaches the nape of the neck. Head, neck, back and chest, up to the tail, pea yellow. Cream throat. Wing mirror identical to the male.
Male: absent or very wide ring; absence of red-brown in the upper part of the chest; white throat.
Both sexes: bright green wing mirror.
MALE AND FEMALE
Bruno as homogeneous as possible. Due to a gender factor, the male is a little darker in the head, neck, wing mirror and tail coverts. Beak: dark gray-brown. Tarsi: brown.
Background color is silvery cream white. Chest, base of the neck, neck, and shoulders brown-red with silver white edging. Belly and plumage of the sides cream white silver. Lower part of the back silver gray with spots and ax, each pen edged in white. Black brown rump. Gray-yellow tail with lighter external hemming. Black tail curls. White wings slightly mixed with gray; with bright green mirror edged in white. Black head with green reflections with white ring not too tight and well closed in the back. Beak: from green gray to willow green. Tarsi: orange.
White yellowish background color. Upper chest, base of the neck, neck and back slightly streaked with brown. Lower part of the back gray-yellow with dark speckles and white edging of the feathers. The background color is clearly visible. Lower part of the chest and belly white cream. Terminal part of the back strongly stained brown. On the wings blue mirror clearly delimited. Light brown tail feathers. Brownish-yellow head with dark streaks. Head and upper neck color well differentiated from the lighter neck base in young subjects. Beak: gray to green gray. Tarsi: a little darker than in the male.
WHITE DRAW ROE DRAWN
top of the head and cheeks matt black brown; a white rim that surrounds the eyes extends dividing the cap / cheek stain and joins the white of the neck. Head and beak divided by a fine white thread. The upper two thirds of the neck are white; the lower third roe deer. The plumage of the roe deer back, when examined closely,
shows a slightly streaked surface with slight darker shadows. Matt brown black tail. Upper part of the wings and roe deer shoulders of the same intensity as the chest. Primary and secondary white remiges; the remiges with the lower part of the chest form a white inverted V, while seen from behind the white has the shape of a heart. Roe and white breast equally divided in half between the sternum and the legs; the upper section roe deer and the lower section white. White belly except an indistinct roe deer line from the lower part of the tail to the legs.
head as in the medium-colored roe deer male. The piebald body as in the male. The roe deer parts have feathers with lighter margins, the drawing instead of darker shades. The design is more evident on the back and on the wings. Tail of the same color as the back. The background color roe deer uniform intensity without light / dark. In both sexes: all the colored parts clearly divided, without fraying. The white parts of a pure white without pens of another color. Eyes: brown. Beak: yellow with greenish spots, black nail; clearer nail allowed. For the same subjects, prefer the one with the black nail. Tarsi: yellow orange. Nails: from light to dark horn.