Agricultural entomology: Frankliniella

Agricultural entomology: Frankliniella

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Classification and host plants

Class: Insects
Order: Tisanotteri
Suborder: Terebrinti
Family: Thrips
Genus: Frankliniella
Species: F. occidentalis Pergande

Bibliographic reference:
Phytopathology, agricultural entomology and applied biology” – M.Ferrari, E.Marcon, A.Menta; School edagricole - RCS Libri spa

Host plants: Greenhouse and open field vegetable crops (Solanaceae, Liliaceae, Leguminosae, Cucurbitaceae, Composite), Floriculture (Chrysanthemum, Geranium, Saintpaulia, Carnation, Rose, Cyclamen, Poinsettia), Fruit trees (Pomacee and Drupacee).

Identification and damage

Frankliniella is a very small Tripid, of American origin, recently introduced in Europe (1986-87), reported in Spain, the Scandinavian countries, England, Germany, France and Italy (1987). In our country this phytophagus has been reported and described, for the first time, on ornamental crops. The adults (about 1 mm long) are of variable color depending on the stage of development.
The active spring-summer forms are of an ocher color, more or less light, with darker streaks or punctuation in the dorsal region; the wintering forms are brownish. Youth stages are very clear.
The damage occurs on all the aerial organs and is determined by the trophic punctures, both of adults and juvenile forms, and by the oviposition.
On the leaves, the attack causes silvery depigmentations which tend to become necrotic, causing a deformation of the flap which rolls up and dries; these alterations are due to the presence of toxic substances in the saliva of the insect.
The damage from oviposition, determined by the incision of the terebra, manifests itself with suberifications and deformations of the affected tissues.
The damage on the flowers, particularly serious for the ornamental ones, is evidenced by depigmentations (sometimes necrotic), more or less scattered on the petals and with lesions to the reproductive organs. Damage to the fruits, caused by injuries or stings, occurs on the external part of the epicarp which suberifies causing deformations of the fruit itself. In addition, Frankliniella is a vector agent for virosis (Tomato).

Biological cycle

Frankliniella winters in the adult stage, in various ravines, both in the open field and in the structures, internal or external, of protected crops, or in the ground.
The activity resumes at different times depending on the areas and wintering environments: in warm environments or in protected crops, the recovery takes place in late winter-early spring; in the open field in early summer. The activity continues until the end of summer or autumn with a number of generations, sometimes overlapping, which varies from 6 to 7 per year, in our rooms.
Frankliniella is a species that reproduces, mainly by parthenogenesis and colonizes all the organs of the egg plant by placing it inside the tissues, by means of the robust ovipositor (terebra).

Frankliniella - Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (photo

Frankliniella: damage on lettuce leaf (photo


The fight against Frankliniella, which is chemical, still presents many difficulties both:
- Due to the difficult finding of the mobile forms which are normally sheltered in the ground during the day, among the flowers or in other ravines of the host plants;
- For the very subtle symptomatic manifestations, hardly evident at the beginning but with explosion of the damage, often sudden and with an intensity that has already compromised part of the product;
For a "certain" resistance that this phytophagus has shown to usable crop protection products; in fact, these are not always able to exert their full effect, because they do not reach the phytophagus well (including endotherapics) which is very sheltered. Furthermore, not all active ingredients are usable, because they are not registered on the crops concerned or because, especially on flowers, they present phytotoxicity.

Chemical fight
The struggle that can currently be suggested consists of some direct interventions such as:
- Geodisinfestations (in the open field);
- Fumigation (especially in protected culture).
The technique involves frequent sampling and monitoring of populations, by means of white chromotropic traps which seems to be the most effective color.
Bluish and yellow chromotropic traps are also being tested (1 every 50 m2).
The intervention through vegetation treatments is carried out when it is believed to be in risk conditions using products, registered for the attached crops, which demonstrate activity against other thrips.
The treatments must be repeated at very close intervals about every 4-5 days.
In protected culture biological control means can be activated by launching Orius laevigatus, Rincote Anthocorid active predator of Thrips, at the rate of 1-2 entomophages per square meter.

Video: MCQ IN ENTOMOLOGY PART 2 For All agricultural competitive exams (July 2022).


  1. Fenrisida

    Yes, a no bad variant

  2. Elsworth

    The ending is cool !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  3. Penley

    I mean, you allow the mistake. Write to me in PM, we will discuss.

  4. Derren

    It above my understanding!

Write a message