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Wildlife in Italy: Wren Troglodytes troglodytes Linnaeus, 1758
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Wildlife in Italy: Wren Troglodytes troglodytes Linnaeus, 1758

Systematic classification and distribution Class: Birds Order: Passerines Family: Troglodytidae Genus: Troglodytes Species: T. troglodytes Linnaeus, 1758 The Wren is widespread in almost all of Europe and can also be found in colder countries such as Russia and Scandinavia. It is also present in some regions of Africa, Asia and North America.

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Beekeeping: Installation of an apiary

In the choice of the place where to place an apiary there are numerous indispensable factors which need a careful evaluation: It is necessary to evaluate the distance from the house and quantify the cost of the displacements in relation to the yield. It is necessary to determine the quantity of nectariferous and polliniferous sources and their distance. from the place of installation.
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Beekeeping: Pollen

The pollen, of vegetable origin, is made up of a multitude of granules (male reproductive cells of the plant) contained in the pollen bags of the anthers of the flowers; the color varies according to the botanical species visited. Pollen belonging to various botanical species (photo Éric Tourneret www.
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Beekeeping: Roles of the worker bee

The tasks of the worker bee are divided into: cleaning of the hive and of the remote maintenance of the brooding assistance for orientation mothersconstruction of faviventilation of the hivetransformation of nectar into honey and preservation of the sameprotection of the hive Table 2 - Chronological sequence of activities Tasks Time spent in days from birthDuration in daycleaning beefrom 0 to 33pe nutriceda 3 to 107ape ceraiolada 10 to 166ape storekeeperfrom 16 to 204pe guardianada 20 to 211 foraging machine of which 10 is exploratory beefrom 21 to 4221Total42Source: Contessi, A.
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Beekeeping: Meeting of families and racking

At any time of the bee production season, there may be a need to bring families together because they are too small, weak or unproductive. In these cases, honeycombs can be dispersed in several hives in order to strengthen them, or the whole family can be brought together to another weaker.
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Beekeeping: Propolis

Substance of origin and various composition collected by bees on the buds and bark of different species such as: poplar, spruce, pine, white fir, plum tree, oak, elm, willow, horse chestnut, ash, etc. Contains aromatic substances of the polyphenolic type, essential oils such as terpenes and various components.
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Beekeeping: Royal Jelly

It is the product of the secretion of the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of worker bees that develop from 5 to 14 days of the adult phase. It is a substance totally of animal origin and is the only food for the queen bees and the food of all the larvae for the first three days of life.
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Beekeeping: Roles of the worker bee

The tasks of the worker bee are divided into: cleaning of the hive and of the remote maintenance of the brooding assistance for orientation mothersconstruction of faviventilation of the hivetransformation of nectar into honey and preservation of the sameprotection of the hive Table 2 - Chronological sequence of activities Tasks Time spent in days from birthDuration in clean beefrom 0 to 33 bee nut from 3 to 107 bee ceraiolada 10 to 166 bee storekeeper from 16 to 204 bee guardian from 20 to 211 forager of which 10 is exploratory bee from 21 to 4221 Total 42 Source: Contessi, A.
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Beekeeping: Looting

The apiary does not represent a normal condition of life for bees and since the beekeeper forces them to live in close proximity, a mechanism is triggered that pushes the bees of a beehive to plunder the supplies of another family. This occurs in times of low harvest and towards weaker families who are unable to defend themselves; often it is the beekeeper to trigger this process through the opening of the hive, nutrition, etc ... A particular type of looting called "latent" occurs when the bees do not attack the colony en masse but take away the supplies little by little, the cause can be attributed to other openings such as the bottom disconnected from the flight door.
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Beekeeping: Honey extraction

The honey extraction consists in the extraction of honey from the honeycombs, to carry out this operation in a comfortable way without having to brush the bees from each frame, just insert the apiscampo after sunset making it perfectly match between the melarium and the nest. After 36-48 hours the beetle can be completely removed without bees.
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Beekeeping: Artificial and natural swarming

Swarming is the definitive departure, from a colony, of a queen followed by a part of the workers. Swarming represents the opportunity for bees to spread their species and is a hereditary characteristic common to all Apis species, more or less highlighted according to the breeds.
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Beekeeping: The poison

Substance produced by the poison glands of the abdomen and expelled with the help of the stinger; it consists of an acid, colorless and clear liquid, of colloidal nature with a pungent, bitter, aromatic flavor, soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. In the worker bee the production of the poison begins shortly after the birth with a peak of production at 15 ° day of age.
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Beekeeping: History

The oldest depiction of man intent on stealing honey from the bee dates back to around 9000 years (Mesolithic), in a cave in Valencia, Spain. It was common practice to collect honeycombs during the winter when the bees they are more vulnerable, the hives were located along the rocky walls so it was necessary to descend with ropes to get there.
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Beekeeping: Social life

Caste Division Caste are divided into sterile caste (workers) and fertile caste (queen). A worker or queen can develop indiscriminately from a fertilized egg, given that the significant differences are due to the diet at which the larvae are submitted during their development. After being fed for three days with royal jelly, a worker bee larva sees its diet change into a mixture of honey and pollen; the queen, on the other hand, follows a diet exclusively based on royal jelly.
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Beekeeping: Apiary visits

They should be made when the weather is fine, in the hottest hours and preferably in the absence of wind. Once the suit has been inserted, we can light the smoker using corrugated cardboard, natural fabric or pine bark and needles; we wear mask and gloves (the most daring can do without it). We lift the cable cover with the lever and immediately introduce a few puffs of smoke, after which we place the cable cover on the ground.
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AIFAO - Italian Amateurs Aquatic and Ornamental Pheasants

A.I.F.A.O - Italian Pheasant, Aquatic, Ornamental Amateurs For the study, breeding and protection. Twenty-one years ago, by the will of some passionate breeders, the A.I.F.A.O.was born. Non-profit, non-political and non-profit association that aimed to protect more or less rare species of birds in compliance with current laws, through the study and multiplication, promoting the exchange of experiences and animals among the members and spreading the passion for healthy and recreational agriculture.
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School - Archive documents
Online agricultural education ">School - Archive documents
Online agricultural education

In this section we have collected the documents concerning teaching in the Agricultural Technical and Professional Institutes and Agricultural Education in Italy and the world of the School. School and world of work agreement: Guide to the organization of internships and company internships Texts of the Exam Themes (State and of Qualification) We have collected the ministerial traces of the State Exams (maturity) and of Qualification for the exercise of the free profession (Agricultural experts and Agricultural and Forestry Doctors).
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Atlas of Pheasants: genus Catreus

Scientific classification - Catreus spp.Regno: AnimalsPhylum: CordatiSubphylum: VertebratesClass: BirdsOrder: GalliformesFamily: PhasianidesGender: CatreusThe Catreus is a monotypic genus made up of only one species, the Wallich's pheasant (Catreus wallichi) endemic to the Himalaya mountains.
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Atlas of Pheasants: Genus Argusianus

Scientific classification - Argusianus spp.Regno: AnimalsPhylum: CordatiSubphylum: VertebratesClass: BirdsOrder: GalliformesFamily: PhasianidesGender: ArgusianusThe Arghi are gigantic phasianids whose breeding constitutes a real luxury, are therefore not very widespread in captivity, while in nature they are native to South Asia eastern, in the forests of Borneo, Malaysia and Sumatra.
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Atlas of Pheasants: Catreus wallichi

Scientific classification - Catreus wallichi Kingdom: Animals Phylum: Chordates Subphylum: Vertebrates Class: Birds Order: Galliformes Family: Phasianidae Genus: Catreus Species: C. wallichi The only member of the genus Catreus, the Wallich's pheasant, is endemic to the Himalayas, where it lives in the mountains between 1.
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Atlas of Pheasants: Argos of Borneo

Scientific classification - Argo del BorneoRegno: AnimalsPhylum: CordatiSubphylum: VertebratesClass: BirdsOrder: GalliformesFamily: PhasianidesGender: ArgusianusSpecies: A. grayiLArgo del Borneo is a very rare phasianid in farms; it is an endemic species of Borneo, where it lives among the dense jungles.
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